Sunday, August 24, 2008

Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Mnemonics

Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD:
Syncope
Angina
Dyspnoea



MI: basic management BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitor
Anticoagulate
Reduce clot size

ECG: left vs. right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW":
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
· Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.


Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND:
Collagen vascular disease
Aortic aneurysm
Radiation
Drugs (such as hydralazine)
Infections
Acute renal failure
Cardiac infarction
Rheumatic fever
Injury
Neoplasms
Dressler's syndrome


Murmurs: systolic types SAPS:
Systolic
Aortic
Pulmonic
Stenosis
· Systolic murmurs include aortic and pulmonary stenosis.
· Similarly, it's common sense that if it is aortic and pulmonary stenosis it could also be mitral and tricusp regurgitation].



MI: signs and symptoms PULSE:
Persistent chest pains
Upset stomach
Lightheadedness
Shortness of breath
Excessive sweating


Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock "Heart SAVER":
Symphatoadrenal system
Atrial natriuretic factor
Vasopressin
Endogenous digitalis-like factor
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
· In all 5, system is activated/factor is released


Murmurs: right vs. left loudness "RILE":
Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.
Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.


ST elevation causes in ECG ELEVATION:
Electrolytes
LBBB
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Aneurysm
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm


Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D's:
Distant heart sounds
Distended jugular veins
Decreased arterial pressure


MI: therapeutic treatment ROAMBAL:
Reassure
Oxygen
Aspirin
Morphine (diamorphine)
Beta blocker
Arthroplasty
Lignocaine


CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE:
Forgot medication
Arrhythmia/ Anaemia
Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection
Lifestyle: taken too much salt
Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
Renal failure
Embolism: pulmonary


Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic.
PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic.


Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic Systolic murmurs: MR AS: "MR. ASner".
Diastolic murmurs: MS AR: "MS. ARden".
· The famous people with those surnames are Mr. Ed Asner and Ms. Jane Arden.


MI: therapeutic treatment "O BATMAN!":
Oxygen
Beta blocker
ASA
Thrombolytics (eg heparin)
Morphine
Ace prn
Nitroglycerin


Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.


Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS":
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.


Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes HOLT: Grab Harold Holt around the neck and throw him in the ocean:
Heart failure
Obstruction of venea cava
Lymphatic enlargement - supraclavicular
Intra-Thoracic pressure increase


MI: therapeutic treatment MONAH:
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Aspirin
Heparin


Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Shock
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine



Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S's:
Soft
Systolic
Short
Sounds (S1 & S2) normal
Symptomless
Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)
Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)
Sternal depression


Murmur attributes "IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves):
Intensity
Location
Pitch
Quality
Radiation
Shape
Timing


Murmurs: locations and descriptions "MRS A$$":
MRS: Mitral Regurgitation--Systolic
A$$: Aortic Stenosis--Systolic
· The other two murmurs, Mitral stenosis and Aortic regurgitation, are obviously diastolic.


Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers "Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium"
· Cardioselective betablockers are:
Betaxolol
Acebutelol
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metoprolol


Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable HILT:
Heaving
Impalpable
Laterally displaced
Thrusting/ Tapping
· If it is impalpable, causes are COPD:
COPD
Obesity
Pleural, Pericardial effusion
Dextrocardia


MI: treatment of acute MI COAG:
Cyclomorph
Oxygen
Aspirin
Glycerol trinitrate


Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease


Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD:
Symmetry of leg musculature
Integrity of skin
Color of toenails
Varicose veins
Distribution of hair


Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones' criteria JONES crITERIA:
· Major criteria:
Joint (arthritis)
Obvious (Cardiac)
Nodule (Rheumatic)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham chorea
· Minor criteria:
Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis)
Temperature (fever)
ESR/CRP elevated
Raised PR interval
Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever)
Arthralgia


Heart murmurs "hARD ASS MRS. MSD":
hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic
ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic
MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic
MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic



Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones criteria JONES PEACE:
· Major criteria:
Joints: migratory
O (heart shaped) Carditis: new onset murmur
Nodules, subcutaneous: extensor surfaces
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham's chorea
· Minor criteria:
PR interval, prolonged
ESR elevated
Arthralgias
CRP elevated
Elevated temperature (fever)
· Need 2 major or 1 major and 2 minor criteria, plus evidence of recent GAS infection (throat cx, rapid antigen test, or rising strep antibody titer).



Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED:
Pulmonary embolus
Acidosis
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia
Myocardial infarction
Electrolyte derangements
Drugs


Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease


Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension


ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Ischemia
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
RBBB, LBBB
Treatments [digoxin]


Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
Stool Softeners



Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
Sick sinus syndrome


Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin



Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration
RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.



Murmurs: questions to ask SCRIPT:
Site
Character (eg harsh, soft, blowing)
Radiation
Intensity
Pitch
Timing



Pericarditis: causes PR DIP, ST UP:
Post-pericardiectomy
Rheumatic fever
Drugs (eg isoniazid, hydralazine, procainalmide)
Infection (eg TB, coxsackie, strep)
PE
SLE/Scleroderma
Tumours/ Thyroid disease
Uraemia
Post MI (includes Dressler's)



Aortic dissection: risk factors ABC:
Atherosclerosis/ Ageing/ Aortic aneurysm
Blood pressure high/ Baby (pregnancy)
Connective tissue disorders (eg Marfan's, Ehlers-Danlos)/ Cystic medial necrosis


Heart failure: causes HEART FAILED:
Hypertension
Endocrine
Anemia
Rheumatic heart disease
Toxins
Failure to take meds
Arrythmia
Infection
Lung (PE, pneumonia)
Electrolytes
Diet







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