Sunday, August 24, 2008

Pediatric Mnemonics

Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
Stridor
Subglottic swelling
Seal-bark cough


Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:
Absent
Thymus


Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism":
Galactosaemia
Cystic fibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hypothyroidism
Phenylketonuria
Biotidinase deficiency
Maple syrup urine disease


Williams syndrome: features WILLIAMS:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)
Long philtrum
Large mouth
Increased Ca++
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Mental retardation
Swelling around eyes (periorbital puffiness)


Russell Silver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Bossing (frontal)
Clinodactyly/ Cafe au lait spots
Dwarf (short stature)
Excretion (GU malformation)
Face (triangular face, micrognathia)


Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain, Papa Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years


Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · Use your five fingers:
1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri)
4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot (4=Tetra)
5 fingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words)


Head circumference with age · Remember 3, 9, and multiples of 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm


Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Truncus arteriosus
Transposition of the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetrology of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return


Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg


Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): components "Remember to decrease the RATE of IV fluids in these patients":
Renal failure
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Thrombocytopenia
Encephalopathy (TTP)


Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock the "CRADLE":
Cystic fibrosis
Rings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ Respiratory infections
Aspiration (swallowing dysfunction, TE fistula, gastroesphageal reflux)
Dyskinetic cilia
Lung, airway, and vascular malformations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord dysfunction)
Edema (heart failure)


Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
Rectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens
Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)


WAGR syndrome: components WAGR:
Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Gential abnormalities
Mental Retardation


Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHIJK:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Bladder (cystitis)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Exercise induced
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Glomerulonephritis
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
Infection (UTI)
In Jury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)


Vitamin Toxicity:

Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)

Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-single words
2 years:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
3 years:
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-rides tricycle
4 years:
-draws square
-counts 4 objects


Breast feeding: contraindicated drugs BREAST:
Bromocriptine/ Benzodiazepines
Radioactive isotopes/ Rizatriptan
Ergotamine/ Ethosuximide
Amiodarone/ Amphetamines
Stimulant laxatives/ Sex hormones
Tetracycline/ Tretinoin

Paediatric history taking · Begin with standard things: patient name, presenting complaint, history of presenting complaint and past medical history.
· Then ask BIFIDA:
Birth details and problems
Immunisations
Feeding
Infection, exposure to
Development, normality of
Allergies
· End by customary review of the rest of the standard things: medications, family history and social history.

Neonatal resuscitation: successive steps "Do What Pediatricians Say To, Or Be Inviting Costly Malpractice":
Drying
Warming
Positioning
Suctioning
Tactile stimulation
Oxygen
Bagging
Intubate endotracheally
Chest compressions
Medications


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