Sunday, August 24, 2008

Epidemiology and Biostats Mnemonics

Suicide risk factors SAD PERSONS:
Sex: male
Age: young, elderly
Depression
Previous suicide attempts
Ethanol and other drugs
Reality testing/ Rational thought (loss of)
Social support lacking
Organized suicide plan
No spouse
Sickness/ Stated future intent


Sensitivity and Specificity

seNsitivity of a test: related to the rate of false Negatives.
sPecificity of a test: related to the rate of false Positives.
· Alternatively written:
seNsitive: No Non-Negatives.
sPecific: Puny Psuedo-Positives.


Informed consent: requirements, exceptions "Sign this DOC before we can start":
Discussion
Obtain agreement
Coercion-free
· Exceptions to informed consent are WIPE:
Waiver
Incompetent
Privilege (therapeutic privilege)
Emergency


Hill criteria for causality " 'Clowns Pursuing Epidemiology' Commonly Behind The Silly Samples":
Consistency
Plausibility
Experimentation
Biological gradient
Coherence
Temporality
Strength of association
Specificity


Primary: Predisposing factors decreased.
Secondary: Severity decreased.
Tertiary: Therapy, Training.


Suicide risk factors in order of risk SOARS:
· Top 6 risk factors in order of highest to lowest risk:
Serious previous attempt
Older than 45
Alcohol
Rage history
Sex (male)


Reliability Random Error
REduces
REliability (REproducibility)


Error: type I (alpha) vs. type II (beta) Type I (Alpha) Error:
"There Is An Effect" where in reality there is none.


Cigarette smoke: major carcinogens PANT:
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic amines
Nitrosamines
Tar
· Nicotine and Carbon monoxide are Non-Carcinogenic.









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